When a patient has a urinary problem, the doctor may use a cystoscope to see the inside of the bladder and urethra. Endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra is called cystoscopy. Diagnostic cystoscopy is usually performed with local anaesthesia. General anaesthesia may be used in some cases for cystoscopic operations.
The cystoscope is a flexible, thin lighted instrument that allows your doctor to look at the inside of the bladder and urethra, including the areas of the bladder and urethra that do not show up well on X- rays.
Your urologist may recommend cystoscopy if you experience one of the following conditions:
* Frequent urinary tract infections
* Blood in the urine
* Loss of bladder control (incontinence) or overactive bladder
* Unusual cells found in urine sample
* Need for a bladder catheter
* Painful urination, chronic pelvic pain, or interstitial cystitis
* Urinary blockage e.g. from prostate enlargement, stricture, or narrowing of the urinary tract
* Stones in the urinary tract
* Removal of cancer, polyp, or tumor
Ureteroscopy is a medical procedure allowing for examination of the upper urinary tract, usually performed by using an endoscope that is passed through the urethra, bladder, and then directly into the ureter. The procedure is useful in the diagnosis and the treatment of disorders such as kidney stones.
The patient is usually free to go home after the examination. Ureteroscopy is a hospital based procedure requiring anesthesia which is usually done as an outpatient. Your urologist inserts a thin lighted scope in to the urethra, bladder and into the ureter (tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder).
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a surgical procedure to remove stones from the kidney by making a small incision (up to one centimeter) through the skin. It is most suitable to remove stones of more than 2 cm in size. The stones are fragmented and removed through the tube. It is usually performed under a general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia. The procedure requires general or regional anesthesia and requires a short hospital stay.